Acute Coronary Syndromes (STEMI, NSTE-ACS)
Pharmacoinvasive Therapy in Treating Acute STEMI Patients in COVID-19 Era-Thrombolysis by Tenecteplase (TNK) / Streptokinase (STK) Followed by Rescue PCI of the Culprit Vessel
Ahm Waliul Islam1, A. Q. M. Reza1, Shams Munwar1, Shahab Uddin Talukder1, Tamzeed Ahmed Tamzeed Ahmed1, Kazi Atiqur Rahman1, Azfar Hossain Bhuiyan1
Evercare Hospital Dhaka, Bangladesh1
Treating acute STEMI patients by primary PCI has dramatically fallen globally in covid era as there is chances of potential threat of spreading Covid among the non-Covid patient. Thereby, thrombolysis of acute STEMI patient either by Streptokinase (STK) or Tenecteplase (TNK) in grey zone till Covid RT PCR report to come, was the mode of treatment of acute myocardial infarction patient in our hospital. Post thrombolysis, Covid positive cases were managed conservatively in a Covid dedicated unit. Covid negative cases were treated by rescue PCI of the culprit lesion.
Exact data on benefit of thrombolysis either by TNK or STK of STEMI patients in Covid era, is not well addressed in our patient population. Thereby, we have carried out this prospective observational study to see the outcomes of thrombolysis and subsequent intervention.
STEMI Patient who represented to our ER with chest pain and ECG and hs-TROP-I evidenced acute ST segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI), were enrolled in the study. Total 139 patients enrolled (Male:120, Female :19); average age for Male: 54yrs., female was: 56yrs. All patients were admitted in the grey zone of CCU where thrombolysis done either by TNK or STK. Positive for COVID-19, were patients excluded from intervention and managed conservatively in Covid-19 dedicated ward. Covid Negative patients were kept transferred to CCU green zone.
COVID-19 test was carried out on all studied patients. Among them,Covid-19 positive were 7.9% (11) patients and managed conservatively in dedicated Covid ward, Covid-19 negative were 92.1% (128). Primary PCI was performed in 5.03% (7). Rest was managed by Pharmacoinvasive therapy either by TNK or STK. Thrombolysis by Tenecteplase in 64% (89), Streptokinase in 17.9% (25)patient, 12.9% (18) patient did not receive any thrombolysis due to late presentation and primary PCI done in 5.4% (7). On average 2.1 days after Fibrinolysis, elective PCI carried out. Data analysis from 48 patients; chest pain duration (3.71 ±2.8 hr., Chest pain to contact time 3.3±2.8hr., Chest pain to needle time 7.2 ±12.7hr., thrombolysis to balloon time 117.5±314.8hr., as many of the patient develop LVF post thrombolysis. More than 50% stenosis resolution observed in 41.6% (20) patients, chest pain resolution with one hour of thrombolysis observed in 43.8% (21) patients and development of LVF in 20.8% (10) patients. Door to needle time was 30 min. At presentation of STEMI; Ant Wall MI 46.8% (65),Inferior Wall MI 52.5% (73) and high Lateral 0.7% (1). Average Serum hs Trop-I was 16656 for male and 12109 for female. LVEF were 41% for male and 48% for female. HbA1C were in Male 8.34%: Female 8.05%, SBP for Male 120mmHg: Female 128 mmHg. Total, 88 stents were deployed in 83 territories. CABG recommended for 5.03% (7) patients, PCI in 58.3% (81), remaining were kept on medical management. Stented territory was LAD 45.7% (37) and RCA 39.5% (32) and LCX 14.8% (12). Common stent used; Everolimus 61.4% (54), Sirolimus 25% (22), Progenitor cell with sirolimus 2.3%(2) and Zotarolimus 11.4% (10)
In the era of COVID-19,in this prospective cohort study, on acute STEMI patient management, we found that Pharmaco therapy by Tenecteplase and Streptokinase, reduced patient symptom and ST resolution partially. Therefore, coronary angiogram and subsequent Rescue PCI by Drug Eluting Stents (DES) are key goals of complete revascularization.